Research (26)

Worldwide, women make up about 50% of the general population but only 24% of the persons heard, read about or seen in newspaper, television and radio news. Only 26% of the people in internet news stories and media news tweets combined are women. These were among the findings of the Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP)’s latest study on the portrayal and representation of women in the news media.

Wednesday, 24 June 2015 15:16

Gender and the media in Asia and the Pacific

Written by

The International Federation of Journalists, UNESCO and UNWomen, released Inside the News: Challenges and Aspirations for Women Journalists in Asia and the Pacific. The report, released on June 22, 2015, documents the issue of gender equity in the media industry throughout the region, as well as what can be done to maintain and protect it.

On International Women’s Day, 2015, the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) Asia-Pacific released a special series of country reports from across the region, exploring gender equity in the region’s media.

Tuesday, 14 October 2014 00:00

The state of female newsroom leadership

Written by

Just one of the 25 highest circulation newspapers in the world – India has seven on that list -- has a woman in the top editorial post. For this report on the state of female newsroom leadership, Nieman Reports interviewed more than 40 academics, media entrepreneurs, investors, publishers, executives, and current and former editors from more than two dozen organisations. 

Saturday, 11 October 2014 00:00

Media and gender: a scholarly agenda (2014)

Written by
Tuesday, 12 August 2014 12:02

Gender equality on the radio (2014)

Written by

Gender pay gap must end, says IFJ


March 7, 2012: The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) marked the 101st International Women's Day by calling on media organisations to end the persisting gender pay gap in journalism. The IFJ published, jointly with WageIndicator, Gender Pay Gap in Journalism, a global report which shows that women journalists continue to face persisting discrimination in wages and benefits.


"The struggle for equality in media remains the reality," says Beth Costa, IFJ general secretary. "The report proved that little progress has been made to end [the] gender pay gap."

According to the report, women journalists are paid 17% less than male colleagues in Europe, 9% less in former Soviet Union countries and 4% less in South America. In addition, women journalists receive less employment benefits (such as health insurance, pension and holiday allowance), which aggravates the inequality in wage levels. As a result, women journalists are less satisfied with their jobs and working conditions.

The report points out that the pay gap increases with age. Women aged 30 and 45 years face the biggest pay gap when they stay out of a job to take care of children and thus accumulate less tenure for pension and lose seniority.

Further, "Women journalists face the same dangers as male colleagues, and are sometimes more vulnerable to harassment and bullying, yet they are paid less for the work of equal value," says Mindy Ran, chair of the IFJ Gender Council. "And they have less job security."

The IFJ says more measures need to be introduced to end the gender pay gap, such as implementing a pay audit, increasing opportunities for flexible work, improving maternity and paternity rights, removing barriers to building seniority and promotion, and implementing gender-aware collective bargaining.

Data in this report are important “both as a weapon against those who believe the fight for equality has been won, and for policy makers, governments and trade unions to plan further, concrete actions to tackle it," says Ran.

The IFJ along with WageIndicator has launched a Decent Wage Campaign to raise journalists’ awareness of their rights to decent pay and working conditions.

WageIndicator is an independent non-profit foundation which aims for transparency of the labour market by sharing and comparing data through its network of national websites.

The IFJ represents over 600,000 journalists in 134 countries worldwide 

Tuesday, 12 August 2014 10:23

Study from Andhra Pradesh on usage of IPC Sec 498A

Written by

The important findings from the research done in 2011 are:

1.The system of law protecting women against violence fails to deliver service as one unit. The system which is supposed to work as a system functions in a haphazard disjoint manner.

2.A serious lack of awareness among the women about the existing remedies if still prevalent. This is evident from the drastic difference observed between the number of people opting for remedy under 498A and under DV Act.

3.Success rate of a petition under the section 498A is starkly low and this happens due to two reasons, firstly absence of evidence and secondly lack of professional help or deficiency in the quality provided.

4.While there are possibilities of misuse, such possibilities are low, while there is also a possibility and in most cases which are dismissed there have been instances of violence according to the police which do not have sufficient evidence to be adduced. The view was confirmed by many lawyers.

5.There have been enough safeguards provided in law to control the abuse of law beyond which a safeguard would eclipse the efficacy of the provisions.

33 normal Chandra Iyengar releases GMMP 2010 India Report 1024x768

Chandra Iyengar releases the GMMP report at the Mumbai Press Club.

29 September 2010 was the global launch date of the several reports (global, regional and national) emerging from the Global Media Monitoring Project 2010.The GMMP 2010 looked at 1,365 newspapers, television and radio stations and Internet news sites, 17,795 news stories and 38,253 persons in the news in 108 countries with 82% of the world’s people. 

The findings of the report ‘Who makes the news’ unfortunately reveal that women are still under-represented and misrepresented in news media coverage, despite significant change since the project began 15 years ago. 76% of the people heard or read about in the world’s news are male. The world seen in news media remains largely a male one.

Some of the findings of the report: 

  • 24% of people in the news are female, compared to 17% in 1995. 44% of persons providing popular opinion in news stories are female compared to 34% in 2005.
  • News media show significant gender bias with 46% of news stories reinforcing gender stereotypes. 
  • 13% of news stories focus centrally on women.
  • Women in occupations outside the home are not represented in proportion to their real presence. 
  • Expert commentary is overwhelmingly male with only one female in every five experts. 
  • The age of women in the news is mentioned twice as often and family status almost four times as often as for men.

Today female reporters are responsible for 37% of stories compared to 28% fifteen years ago, and their stories challenge gender stereotypes twice as often as stories by male reporters.

Gender bias in Internet news is similar to and in some respects even more intense than that found in the traditional news media.

This year, for the first time since India began participating in the five-yearly GMMP process (1995, 2000, 2005), a national report has been produced to specifically present the results of GMMP monitoring in India. GMMP research in India, conducted by volunteers across the country, was coordinated by NWMI. The media monitored here include 20 dailies, 11 TV news bulletins, and 5 radio bulletins, together representing 9 languages. Some findings from analysis of data from India:

  • Women constituted less than a quarter (22 per cent) of the people heard or read about in the news (i.e., as news subjects) across all topic categories in India. 
  • Only 22 per cent of the news subjects who were also sources of information (news sources) were women.
  • 78 per cent of the news sources were men. 
  • Only 12% of the news stories had women as the central focus (i.e., focussed specifically on one or more women). That is marginally less than the global figure (13%). 
  • Only 5 per cent of the news stories highlighted gender equality or inequality, again marginally less than the global figure (6 per cent). 
  • Nearly two thirds (63 per cent) of the news stories reinforced gender stereotypes while only 9 per cent challenged them.

The GMMP global and national reports were released in Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore on 29 September, to coincide with the global launch. In Mumbai NWMI collaborated with the Press Club of Mumbai to organise the event. In Delhi NWMI and the Indian Women’s Press Corps jointly organised the function, and in Bangalore the Centre for Development & Learning hosted the event.

The 2010 report contains a plan of action for media professionals and others committed to gender-ethical news media. 

The GMMP is the largest and longest running research and advocacy initiative on fair and balanced gender representation in the news media. It is coordinated by WACC, a global network of communicators promoting communication for social change, in collaboration with data analyst Media Monitoring Africa, and with support from the United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Full reports (global, regional, national) and more information are available at

Page 1 of 2