The International Federation of Journalists, UNESCO and UNWomen, released Inside the News: Challenges and Aspirations for Women Journalists in Asia and the Pacific. The report, released on June 22, 2015, documents the issue of gender equity in the media industry throughout the region, as well as what can be done to maintain and protect it.
On International Women’s Day, 2015, the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) Asia-Pacific released a special series of country reports from across the region, exploring gender equity in the region’s media.
Gender pay gap must end, says IFJ
March 7, 2012: The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) marked the 101st International Women's Day by calling on media organisations to end the persisting gender pay gap in journalism. The IFJ published, jointly with WageIndicator, Gender Pay Gap in Journalism, a global report which shows that women journalists continue to face persisting discrimination in wages and benefits.
"The struggle for equality in media remains the reality," says Beth Costa, IFJ general secretary. "The report proved that little progress has been made to end [the] gender pay gap."
According to the report, women journalists are paid 17% less than male colleagues in Europe, 9% less in former Soviet Union countries and 4% less in South America. In addition, women journalists receive less employment benefits (such as health insurance, pension and holiday allowance), which aggravates the inequality in wage levels. As a result, women journalists are less satisfied with their jobs and working conditions.
The report points out that the pay gap increases with age. Women aged 30 and 45 years face the biggest pay gap when they stay out of a job to take care of children and thus accumulate less tenure for pension and lose seniority.
Further, "Women journalists face the same dangers as male colleagues, and are sometimes more vulnerable to harassment and bullying, yet they are paid less for the work of equal value," says Mindy Ran, chair of the IFJ Gender Council. "And they have less job security."
The IFJ says more measures need to be introduced to end the gender pay gap, such as implementing a pay audit, increasing opportunities for flexible work, improving maternity and paternity rights, removing barriers to building seniority and promotion, and implementing gender-aware collective bargaining.
Data in this report are important “both as a weapon against those who believe the fight for equality has been won, and for policy makers, governments and trade unions to plan further, concrete actions to tackle it," says Ran.
The IFJ along with WageIndicator has launched a Decent Wage Campaign to raise journalists’ awareness of their rights to decent pay and working conditions.
WageIndicator is an independent non-profit foundation which aims for transparency of the labour market by sharing and comparing data through its network of national websites.
The IFJ represents over 600,000 journalists in 134 countries worldwide
The important findings from the research done in 2011 are:
1.The system of law protecting women against violence fails to deliver service as one unit. The system which is supposed to work as a system functions in a haphazard disjoint manner.
2.A serious lack of awareness among the women about the existing remedies if still prevalent. This is evident from the drastic difference observed between the number of people opting for remedy under 498A and under DV Act.
3.Success rate of a petition under the section 498A is starkly low and this happens due to two reasons, firstly absence of evidence and secondly lack of professional help or deficiency in the quality provided.
4.While there are possibilities of misuse, such possibilities are low, while there is also a possibility and in most cases which are dismissed there have been instances of violence according to the police which do not have sufficient evidence to be adduced. The view was confirmed by many lawyers.
5.There have been enough safeguards provided in law to control the abuse of law beyond which a safeguard would eclipse the efficacy of the provisions.
Chandra Iyengar releases the GMMP report at the Mumbai Press Club.
76% of the people heard or read about in the world’s news are male. The world seen in news media remains largely a male one.
Some of the findings of the report:
Today female reporters are responsible for 37% of stories compared to 28% fifteen years ago, and their stories challenge gender stereotypes twice as often as stories by male reporters.
Gender bias in Internet news is similar to and in some respects even more intense than that found in the traditional news media.
This year, for the first time since India began participating in the five-yearly GMMP process (1995, 2000, 2005), a national report has been produced to specifically present the results of GMMP monitoring in India. GMMP research in India, conducted by volunteers across the country, was coordinated by NWMI. The media monitored here include 20 dailies, 11 TV news bulletins, and 5 radio bulletins, together representing 9 languages. Some findings from analysis of data from India:
The GMMP global and national reports were released in Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore on 29 September, to coincide with the global launch. In Mumbai NWMI collaborated with the Press Club of Mumbai to organise the event. In Delhi NWMI and the Indian Women’s Press Corps jointly organised the function, and in Bangalore the Centre for Development & Learning hosted the event.
The 2010 report contains a plan of action for media professionals and others committed to gender-ethical news media.
The GMMP is the largest and longest running research and advocacy initiative on fair and balanced gender representation in the news media. It is coordinated by WACC, a global network of communicators promoting communication for social change, in collaboration with data analyst Media Monitoring Africa, and with support from the United Nations Development Fund for Women.
"Critiques of media coverage of sexual violence in general and rape in particular tend to focus primarily on sins of commission. While some of these—such as sensationalism and prurience—are professionally indefensible, others are more complicated: the amount and type of detail to be included in news reports,
Is there any reasons for the Indian media to show collective interest in covering Sri Lanka’s raging conflict? If yes, what are they?
|North — Largely event-based. More political angles covered such as pace talks, Norwegian facilitation and Premier Manmohan Singh’s regular appeals to the Colombo administration to resume talks. The stories dealt with statistics than issues. There were few reports on the humanitarian crisis. More knee jerk stories.|
|South — There was consistent coverage. The South also had a lot of local stories. The coverage was broad. The stories/clippings urging support for the Northern Tamil populations. Some were full of advocacy- ie; the need for a separate Tamil homeland in northern Sri Lanka. A few stories traced the historical relations between South Indian and Sri Lanka. With the outbreak of war in 2006, wave of fresh reporting ensued on the question of Sri Lankan refugees. Following the 2002 truce between the government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE, some 70,000 Sri Lankan refugees returned to Sri Lanka. At that time, a little over 200,000-made South Indian camps their home. Tamil Nadu Chief Minister K Karunandhi and General Secretary, MDMK, V Gopalaswamy alias Vaiko dominated the stories.
A positive phase in reporting was experienced during the same period. There was a fair balance of reports based on statistics as well as issues. More opinion pieces published. Humanitarian crisis significantly covered.
|Assam — Was more radical in reporting. There was a certain level of advocacy. Largely sympathetic to the Tamil cause.The overall reporting showed lacked in depth coverage and a serious lack vibrant discussion. Event based reporting. The above despite serious political and security implications for India.|
|Women as experts — There are no women experts generally commenting on the peace process, conflict or the political aspects of the same. There isn’t a strong enough voice raised by the elected women legislators as well. Some women activists focus on human rights, the humanitarian crisis and psychological needs of victims of war. Few women have done academic work — Dr. Rajini Thiranagama who was critical both of the government and the LTTE and wrote a book titled the “Broken Palmyra” was killed in Jaffna by the LTTE|
|Government forces — Employs women but none of them have ended as the commander in chief or as chief of staff, the two top ranks Only two years ago, SLAF began recruiting women as cadet pilots Women perform non-combatant duties in all three forces. No woman has reached beyond a certain rank in all three armed forces. The only woman who reached a rank of recognition was Premila Diwakara, a Superintendent of Police (SP)|
Coverage of political parties based on audio-visual feeds
On calculating the coverage parties received on the basis of the audio-visual feeds we found:
|Other party main spokespersons||Frequency|
|Laloo Yadav (RJD)||91||2.2%|
|Mulayam Singh Yadav (Samajwadi Party)
|Sharad Pawar (NCP)||48||1.1%|
|George Fernandes (JDU)||45||1%|
|Amar Singh (Samajwadi Party)||35||0.85%|